• Stresses rebirth, "new creation" myth, need for new community/outlook
  • Creates distinct hierarchies with father figure at top—focus on youth
  • Emerges during/at a crisis period
  • Breaks radically and absolutely from decadent past
  • Develops trope of young, healthy body
  • Excludes contagion or weak element
  • Maintains relationship with phantom "other"
  • Collapses social body, national body, and individual body
  • Combines traditional with modern to evoke progress
  • Recruits believers by being psychologically hegemonic (you can only see fascism when you are outside of it)

Viewed on 4/24/04.

How to do fascism:

  • Believe that we are living in a classless society
  • Continually gauge your proximity to a messianic leader (physically, hierarchically, ceremonially)
  • Pit workers against intellectuals- do not tolerate those who critique "One people/One land" ideology
  • Offer affirmation/security/recognition to fellow members of the One body

http://www.crrl.com.fr/archives/expo19-39/guide/part8.htm. Viewed on 4/20/04.

Performance of Fascism:

Style: Rhetoric:
  • Charismatic national identity is goal
  • Relies heavily on ritual and ceremony
  • Immediate, rational appeal
  • Not imposed by visible force
  • Emphasis on iconographic repetition to evoke unity
  • Fun, light mood that develops into terrorizing apparatus
  • People allow control to avoid conflict
  • Psychological splitting as a result of trauma
  • Surveillance as leader's right
  • Ultimate goal is to create citizens and believers
  • Cooperation with other countries is not an option
  • Creation of a community, bond
  • Seductive use of sensational tropes
  • One body, One nation as fantasy
  • Emphasis on pyramids/apex = leader
  • Fear of becoming/being the invisible Other
  • Based on Platonic model (catharsis, purgation)
  • Consumer/citizen roles defined in relationship to demographics (age, $, etc.)


Fascist scholarship and speech trends:

Scholarship: Speeches:
  • Political systems are on an evolutionary, hierarchical scale
  • Agenda is self-consciously revisionary
  • Fascism is viewed as a successful, necessary project
  • Subtly persuasive
  • More clearly propagandist
  • Potential danger lies largely in its performance
  • Use of "WE"
  • Naturalized and in-the-moment

Fascist Economic System:

  • Corporate Capitalism
  • Anti-liberal
  • Strictly Nationalist
  • State-run
  • Hermetic


http://www.charleslipson.com/speechtopics/Turning-Points-of-the-Twentieth-Century.htm. Viewed on 4/20/04.





Nobel-e-museum. Viewed on 4/4/04.


A Comparison of two paradigms:

  • System of domination
  • No need for popular compliance: violence
  • Rhetorically, missionary in aim
  • All is Self/Other
  • Typically international
  • Self policing the land/others
  • Audience is at distance
  • System of compliance
  • Need for the popular compliance: persuasive
  • Discursively, there is no apparent Other
  • All is One
  • Typically intranational
  • Self policing the Self
  • Audience is immediate
  • There are always two parties involved
  • The social body is represented as fractured: the haves and the have-nots



  • The whole social body is represented in identical bodies at the service of the One
  • The whole social body is endangered by “outside” contagion or external disease
  • The militarization of body that determines an individual’s value by that individual’s biological and physical condition


*Click on the images below to go to case studies