following are reactions to readings done in class to understand
the paradigm of fascism and the modes of resistance offered
to it historically. We hope the reader will find this shorthand
a useful guide to reference.
Louis. 1969. "The 'Piccolo Teatro' Bertolazzi and Brecht."
In For Marx , Penguin Press (1965).
consciousness in Althusserian model:
spectator for an active and living critique
of a new consciousness in spectator
model of Fascism versus Estrangement model of Brecht
of decentering by not relating to or focusing on the hero
the invisibility of the ideological apparatus
of not knowing oneself
is purely psychological
consciousness in Brechtian model:
a community of spectatorship
recognition of how to change the situation
is for political ends (for whose politics?)
Louis. 1971. "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses."
In Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, 127-184. New York
and London: NLB.
Ideology and the State:
are a product/reproduction of the means of production
comes out of a set of practices
State Apparatus [We know about this normalizing system because
we act (within) it]:
educational, family, legal, etc.
Church has been replaced by The School
as determining the working classes
of individuals as already subjects
participates in the practices of the ideological
Walter. 1968. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical
Reproduction." In Illuminations , New York:
that which cannot be reproduced
is what is killing art
Bertolt. "A Short Organum for the Theatre." In Brecht
on Theater , edited and translated by John Willet, 179-205.
New York: Hill and Wang.
on historical specificity: each society produces its own
kinds of theater
is by definition a political intervention. It can never
works producing entertainment. Theatre's ultimate purpose
and politics: Marxist approach to pleasure in politics
does not need justification
to work with emotions, but at distance (anti-theatrical)
trains the audience to be a good (complaint) audience, anti-instrumentality
of the endeavor (as opposed to fascist art?)
effect "A" effect
theater contradicts the hegemonic training of actors in
as reason and emotion as the irrational
of Science not thought through although scientific methods
were to be used for social life.
between the working class and intellectuals
goal was to transform audience to a state of suspicious
inquiry. Make strange the ordinary
tool was making the state of things looks "strange." Split
between representation and the reality of the object represented.
was to be for "children of the scientific age"
plays provided weak pleasure while stronger pleasure was
derived from more complex ones.
towards society the same as attitude towards nature
to rationality (as opposed to the irrationality of fascism)
making things look strange: separating the character and
the actor/actress so there is no way of identify both
Adorno on Brecht, "Commitment." In Aesthetics
and Politics .
is no un-political art, for there is no outside of society
when oppositional, art is always part of society
art: explicit political involvement and message of art.
Art as a means
art: art for art's sake. Art as an end
suffering was obscene
consumerism / victimizing the audience by portrayals of
to talk about violence without reproducing violence?
of traumatic situation can be healing