1. Louis Owens. Mixed Blood Messages: Literature, Film, Family, Place. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998, p 13. Of mixed Cherokee, Choctaw and Irish heritage, Owens focuses on the theme of mixed blood identity in much of his writing, in which he disputes the notion of the "real Indian" and the imagery proliferated by this limited social construct. Owen's own life, cut short by suicide in 2002, was deeply affected by his inability to prove his Native ancestry, thereby branding him a non-Indian in the eyes of the American government.
2. Deschamps, Gilbert. We Are Part of a Tradition: A Guide on Two-Spirited People for First Nations Communities. Mino-B'maadiziwin Project: www.2spirits.com. Toronto: 2-Spirited People of the First Nations, 1998. This short guide offers the history of the Two-Spirit in a modern context, explaining some of the basic philosophical approaches and the current issues that continue to affect Two-Spirit people.
3. Muñoz, Jose Esteban. Disidentifications: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, p. 31. Muñoz looks at queer theatre as a process or outcome of what he terms disidentifcation. He describes this as a point of departure, of building, where queer artists build identities and politics in the present and in the future, a concept that fittingly describes Monkman's work.
4. Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture. London and New York: Routledge: 1994, p 7. Although I have argued that, for Indigenous people, we are not living in a postcolonial world, Bhabha's theory of postcolonialism is effective for an analysis of the methods of utlizing the concept of hybridity as a source of agency. Bhabha theorizes that agency exists in the moment of enunciation, in the spaces between language, which I would argue is the space in which Monkman's performance, which creates a new language, exists.
5. Liss, David. "Miss Chief's Return." Canadian Art Magazine. Volume 22, Number 3, Fall 2005, p. 82. This is one of the first major pieces written about Monkman's current work, which is quickly gaining popularity in the Toronto and international art scene.
6. Wolford, Lisa "Guillermo Gomez-Peña: An Introduction" Theatre Topics. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Volume 9, Number 1, March 1999, pp. 89-91. A further comparative examination of the Gomez-Peña and Monkman's work is an area of future research interest for me.
8. Muñoz, 1999:58.
9. Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of North American Indians: Written During Eight Years' Travel (1832-1839) Amongst the Wildest Tribes of Indians in North America. London: D. Bogue, 1844, p.102. The most striking things I found in reading Catlin's letters were how earnestly he believed he was doing the right and just thing, and the important role he felt he played in recording what appeared to be a dying race. While he claimed to like the "red man" and considered him to be human, his letters reflect a tone of colonial and patronizing racial superiority.
10. Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle. Bureau of Public Secrets website: http://www.bopsecrets.org/SI/debord/. October, 2005. Monkman's performance as spectacle could provide the basis for another paper, but I thought it was worth addressing briefly in the context of this paper.
11. Luna, James. "Allow Me to Introduce Myself." Canadian Theatre Review. Issue 68, Fall 1991.
12. Bhabha, 1994. Muñoz also discusses Bhabha's concept of mimicry as a complex, "double articulation," disavowing as it affirms the dominant power structure (1999:78).
13. Muñoz, 1999:79. Muñoz affirms my contention of hybridity as a site of power for cross-cultural/cross-gender identity politics.
14. Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, Volume One: The Will to Knowledge. London: 1990, p. 103.
15. Owens, 1998:26.
16. King, Thomas. The Truth About Stories: A Native Narrative. Toronto: House of Anansi, 2004, p. 1
King, also of mixed heritage, is one of Canada's foremost Native authors, writing trickster narratives and texts asserting the importance of storytelling and the need to revisit history from the perspective of Native worldviews.
17. Foucault, 1990:106.
18. Williams, Walter. The Spirit and The Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture. Boston: Beacon Press: 1986. Although Williams employs the "berdache" terminology, he offers a thorough history of Two-Spirit life and identity pre-colonialism, affirming its existence and positive status while highlighting the difficulties of researching a topic that has been so deeply shut down through systematic colonial oppression.
19. Ibid., p. 82.
20. Deschamps, 1998.
21. Bhabha, 1998:8.
22. Foucault, 1990.
23. Deschamps, 1998.
24. Foucault, 1990:95.
25. Williams 1986:187.
26. Minh-ha, Trinh T. When the Moon Waxes Red: Representation, Gender and Cultural Politics. London and New York: Routledge: 1991, p. 145. Monkman is careful to acknowledge the hegemonic colonial relationship that has oppressed Native sexuality. His work speaks to both Native and non-Native audiences.
27. Monkman, Kent. Artist notes, The Trilogy of St. Thomas, 2004.
30. Minh-ha, 1991:14.
31. Monkman, Trilogy ofSt. Thomas: 2004.
32. Minh-ha, 1991:12.
33. Bhabha, 1994.
34. Catlin, 1884:16.